Uganda, as a landlocked African nation, experienced colonialism only in the late 19th century, well after European interests had taken control in most other regions of Africa. In the late 19th century it became a protectorate under the British, and unlike many other colonies, the kingdoms and nations within the protectorate retained a wide degree of self-determination. For example, many of the Bantu kings that ruled in the south continued to rule despite the British interests controlling many economic and inter-kingdom affairs. (Like most of Africa’s nations, Uganda’s political boundaries are nonsensical when looking at the peoples that make up its border — see a visualization of this phenomenon here.) Because of this, many aspects of late-nineteenth century African society and the ancient political system survived the colonial experience in Uganda, despite being wiped out in most other parts of the continent.
Perhaps ironically, the Bantu kingdoms that survived the British did not survive their departure. When Uganda became independent in 1963 and abolished commonwealth monarchy, it then proceeded in 1967 to abolish the remaining monarchies. In 1993, the government of President Museveni permitted the Bantu kingdoms to reincorporate, to the extent they were “cultural institutions,” not political insitutions. Of course, politics is inevitable in everything — but the real meaning of the restoration of the kingdoms was that the kings .

There is very little information on the constitutent kingdoms of Uganda available on the Internet, so I’ve compiled this post from a variety of sources. You can read more on the pdf files here, here, and here. I’ve briefly explained the recent history of each kingdom below, referencing the (often very brief) wikipedia page on each kingdom.
The kingdom of Bunyoro (also known as Bunyoro-Kitara) was created when the quasi-mythical Kitara Empire broke apart in the 16th century. Bunyoro then remained one the most powerful kingdoms of East Africa until the 19th century, when its territory and wealth was slowly taken by Buganda. In July 1890, the entire region north of Lake Victoria was given to Great Britain, which declared the region its protectorate, which Bunyoro resisted. When the king was captured and exiled, yet more territory of Bunyoro was granted to Buganda and Toro, and later put under the administration of Buganda.
Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms, the largest Ugandan ethnic group, yet still only consisting of about 17 percent of the population. The name Uganda, the Swahili term for Buganda, was adopted by British officials in 1894 when they established the Uganda Protectorate, centered in Buganda. Kampala, the nation’s capital, is located in Buganda.

Ankole, also referred to as Nkore, was ruled by a monarch known as the Mugabe or Omugabe of Ankole. Ankole was incorporated into the Ugandan protectorate in 1901, but remained independent and the Mugabe kept his crown, although he had little influence over The kingdom was abolished in 1967 and restored in 1993, but an updisputed king is still not officially restored because of disagreements between the ruling clans.

Toro was founded in 1830 when a Prince of Bunyoro rebelled and established his own independent kingdom. It was incorporated back into Bunyoro in 1876, but later it reasserted its independence in 1891. Like Buganda, Bunyoro, Ankole and Busoga, Toro’s monarchy was abolished in 1967 by the government of Uganda, but was reinstated in 1993, at which time its borders receded from its historical boundaries that went to the borders of Uganda, possibly to avoid any conflict that could occur with a region even partially autonomous having control over the national borders.

Busoga, while technically one of the restored kingdoms, is not a formal monarchy. It is more closely established as a cultural institution that promotes popular participation ‎and unity


From the map you will see that Uganda is quite well watered - in fact evenly. The list of Ugandan rivers is long and quite honestly you could struggle to talk about each of them but here I will cover the most popular... What you will find about each of them is; they carry that spectacular beauty across the country with uniqueness.
Lake Victoria receives its waters from various streams with the Kagera River the largest of them. River Ruvubu with its headquarters in Burundi feeds River Kagera (Some believe this is the true source of the mighty Nile) - on how factual this is, that is not mine to prove but you can join the search at this point ...
River Kafu (River Kabi - on some of the old maps) in the west is another of Ugandan rivers that flows into the Victoria Nile. Its source is a swamp close to the village of kitoma in Kibaale. River Katonga flows out of Lake Victoria northwards into Lake Wamala. One of its streams flows westwards into Lake George that is connected to Lake Edward by the Kazinga channel.
River Sezibwa in the southern central flows from a swampy section between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga via some eye-catching landscapes - notably is the Sezibwa falls, before emptying into Kyoga.
Another notable of these rivers is River Mayanja. With its source from the hills in Wakiso,

Ugandan Rivers - nature you must see!
Certainly at the mention of Ugandan rivers, the mighty River Nile will take top spot as a masterpiece of Mother Nature that stands out as a tourist attraction you must see.
With its source in Jinja, it takes on different names (Victoria Nile and Albert Nile) on its way to the Southern Sudan and into Egypt showcasing probably the best scenery you will see around Uganda.
It is an artistic piece of panorama that will inspire you - if you are in search for inspiration; with its various tributaries and the striking scenes - the magnificent falls and calmness it leaves behind on its journey will certainly inspire poem writers and works of Art. It is such an international tourist attraction that attracts tourists in their thousands to Uganda.
... But this inspiration of Ugandan rivers starts in Lake Victoria; at its source, the Victoria Nile flows northwest into Lake Kyoga and out into Lake Albert. It then leaves Lake Albert as the Albert Nile making its way to the Southern Sudan and all the way to Egypt into the Mediterranean Sea. This makes it undoubtedly the longest of all Ugandan rivers.
All along the banks of the Nile you will find Ugandan people with their delightful variation in culture that have for generations lived there.

process, the soldiers killed twelve people, injured several hundred, and arrested more than 1,000. A series of similar clashes occurred between troops and demonstrators, and in March 1962 the government recognized the army's growing domestic importance by transferring control of the military to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
On 9 October 1962 Uganda became independent from the United Kingdom, with 4th Battalion, King's African Rifles, based at Jinja, becoming the Uganda Rifles.[5] The armed forces more than doubled, from 700 to 1,500, and the government created 2nd Battalion, Uganda Rifles, stationed at the northeastern town of Moroto.[6] The traditional leader of the Baganda, Edward Mutesa, became president of Uganda. Milton Obote, a northerner and longtime opponent of autonomy for the southern kingdoms including Buganda, was prime minister. Mutesa recognized the seriousness of the rank-and-file demands for Africanizing the officer corps, but he was more concerned about potential northern domination of the military, a concern that reflected the power struggle between Mutesa and Obote. Mutesa used his political power to protect the interests of his Baganda constituency, and he refused to support demands for Africanization of the officer ranks.
In January 1964, following a mutiny by Tanganyikan soldiers in protest over their own.

In 1970, the International Institute for Strategic Studies assessed the Ugandan armed forces to consist of 6,700 personnel, constituting an Army of 6,250 with two brigade groups, each of two battalions, plus an independent infantry battalion, with some Ferret armoured cars, and BTR-40 and BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers, plus an air arm of 450 with 12 Fouga Magister armed jet trainers, and seven MiG-15s and MiG-17s.[11]
In 1976, during Operation Entebbe the Israeli military destroyed 12 MiG-21s and three MiG-17s based at Entebbe Airport in order to prevent pursuit.[12]
In 1979, before the Uganda-Tanzania War, the Ugandan armed forces were reported, by the IISS, as consisting of 20,000 land forces personnel, with two four-battalion brigades and five other battalions of various types, plus a training regiment.[13] There were a total of 35 T-34, T-55, and M-4 Sherman medium tanks. An air arm was 1,000 strong with 21 MiG-21 and 10 MiG-17 combat.